Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Influence Of Fandom On Celebrity Music Fandom As...

2.5 Directions Forward In the chapters that follow, I seek to contrast themes endemic to celebrity music fandom-as-religion literature with my data set and, in that juxtaposition, demonstrate ways in which scholars of fandom-as-religion may have mischaracterized fan emotion, sentiment, and action, as well as the fan-celebrity relationship. I follow Sandvoss in his distinction between fandom and religion: â€Å"In contrast to religion, fandom lacks an absolute, other-worldly framework through which social realities are constructed and legitimized. If fandom differs so radically in its premises from religion, it is difficult to juxtapose their consequences meaningfully† (2005, 63). One question this dissertation asks is if religion is a useful†¦show more content†¦For example, Patsy Cline’s posthumous narrative appropriates social class, Tupac mediates identity and social narratives, and Robert Johnson acts as a â€Å"hook to hang stories on† (Rothenbuhler 2005, 230). The latter of these, Robert Johnson as a â€Å"hook to hang stories on,† is one of the most useful ways of describing the individual and collective purpose of dead celebrity. First in life, but then more solidly in death, these musicians come to embody a certain narrative, such as the late singer Karen Carpenter. Carpenter, posthumously dubbed â€Å"Saint Karen,† died of anorexia in 1983 and her image became a cautionary tale. Fans mediate these meanings of the Carpenter narrative for their own purposes. For example, some girls and women identified with the narrative as trapped by the disorder, lacking autonomy and control over their life (see Bowers and Grey 2005, 110). Dead celebrity musicians become an image, a location and place where fans understand themselves and their place in the world, should the fan pursue such identification. As externalizations, the image represents what the fan needs it to represent. The image, as Bowers and Grey rightly point out, becomes resilient to attacks, â€Å"as popular icons, musicians may often come to represent larger

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

America’s View on Immigration - 638 Words

America’s View on Immigration Americans, in the late 1800s and beginning of the 1900s, had a diversity of views about immigration and the immigrants. The United States of America, a nation of immigrants, had been welcoming to immigration in the 1800-1900’s. Thomas Page, a professor of the University of Virginia said, â€Å"Until the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the attitude of the press and of the public men in the United States was with few exceptions strongly favorable to immigration. † In America the cultures of these foreigners were usually not accepted by many Americans, â€Å"It was commonly believed that agriculture, industry, and the general development of the country were promoted by their arrival,† said Thomas Page. Almost all of the Americans views on the matter changed during the 1900’s. Thoughts of the economy came to show the growing skepticism of Americans’ viewpoint on immigration and immigrants. Although the thoughts on the economy by Americans were not mutual on the problems of immigration or what the solution should be, there was shared agreement that immigration was a large problem. American thinkers on the economy were adverse to unregulated immigration and supported the idea of additional government rules, laws, and regulations on the matter (Americas Best History U.S. Timeline, The 1890s). Between 1900 and 1915, about fifteen million immigrants crossed over to the United States. That is about the same number of immigrants who had came to the USShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Impact of Latin American Immigration on America1553 Words   |  7 Pages Immigration is the process of entry of individuals into a new country (23). Throughout past centuries, immigration has been a means of discovery and exploration of new lands. 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Throughout America’s history, the Democratic and Republican parties have grown to become the two major parties in American government. These parties are important to the electoral system as each party represents the â€Å"embodiment of shared principlesRead MoreThe Aftermath of World War I927 Words   |  4 Pagessince they did not spend as much money as France, Germany, and Britain did. This ignited their unprecedented affluence which had a domino effect in America’s society in terms of government’s relationship to business. Another effect of the First World War is the Red Scare and Americaâ€℠¢s prejudice and fear against the minorities shown through the immigration policies it established. These changes in the economy increased living standards, evidently seen through the consumer culture, progressive innovationsRead More Should Immigration Be Limited? 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Russia’s Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 created communism and caused the United states to experience the first Red Scare. Many people feared the presence of immigrants so much, that they

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Understanding Islam Free Essays

Introduction The literal meaning of Islam is peace. Because of many current world events, Islam is a highly controversial and sensitive issue that has many misconceptions that need to be more fully addressed and understood. It is true that the events of 9/11 have separated the history of American relations with the Muslim world into before and after phases, negatively affecting the patterns of assimilation of immigrant Muslims into American culture and society (Simmons, 2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding Islam or any similar topic only for you Order Now This essay will begin to give factual details regarding the Islam faith, compare Islam with other Abrahamic religions and discuss common misconceptions and current events that have changed the way the world looks at Muslims and the Islam faith. Body It will be useful to begin with attempting to scratch the surface and try to understand the teachings of Islam. Islam is a monotheistic religion based on revelations received by the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. These revelations were recorded in the faith’s text, the Qur’an. The Islam faith has â€Å"Six Articles of Beliefs†. People of the Muslim faith must have great conviction in these most important six areas. They are: 1. Belief in God. 2. Belief in the Angels. 3. Belief in the Prophets and Messengers. 4. Belief in the Sacred Texts. 5. Belief in Life After Death. 6. Belief in the Divine Decree (Abdulsalam, 2006). The believers worship God directly without the intercession of priests or clergy. They also have five duties that are given as rules to follow. Those are the Five Pillars of Islam; Belief, Worship, Fasting, Almsgiving and Pilgrimage (Grupper, Prentice, Roughton, 2000). The country with the most Muslims is Indonesia, with 120 million. In addition there are millions more in parts of Eastern and Western Europe and in the Americas. The Islam religion claims nearly 1 billion followers in countries throughout the world. Islam is also the youngest among major world religions but is still one of the largest (Ridenour, 2001). Islam belongs in a group of three religions called the â€Å"Abrahamic† religions. Those three religions are Christianity, Judaism and Islam. They are three sister religions that are monotheistic and that claim the prophet Abraham as their common forefather. To compare Islam and Christianity, in relation to God, Muslims believe there is no God but Allah; Christians believe that God is revealed in scripture as Father, Son and Holy Spirit, three persons who are coeternally God (Ridenour, 2001). This sometimes causes Jews and Muslims to criticize the Christians as polytheistic. In all three religions, there is an ethical orientation. All three religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is depended upon obedience or disobedience to God (Unkown, 2007). The three also have a linear concept of history with creation as the beginning and that God works through history. The believers of Islam are called Muslims which means â€Å"one who lives his life according to God’s will† (Langley, 1993). It would seem that this particular people and religion would be a people of peace, sincerity and love. Since 9/11, the world of the faithful in Muslim societies has been in turmoil because the living Islam, dominated by its traditional interpreters, the learned ulema, has not been able to guide the community at the most critical period of its existence (Sachedina, 2010). This current critical period of Islam existence has created many misconceptions. Only if it is assumed that the goal of Islam is to establish peace without resorting to aggression can one claim that that militant Islamists have hijacked their religion (van der Krogt, 2010). Islam is practiced all over the world and the way it is practiced is different in different locations. Islam does claim to be brotherhoods of â€Å"one religion†, but the Islam practiced in Indonesia is very different than the Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia, which is also different from that in Kazakhstan, or Iran, or Morocco. In researching for this essay, the author found many different â€Å"types† of Islamic groups all over the world. There are over 73 sub-sects that have emerged within Islam today (Venkatraman, 2007). Some peaceful and some more aggressive. A group called Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (The Party of Islamic Liberation) began working in Central Asia in the mid-1990s and has developed a committed following inside Uzbekistan, and to a lesser extent in neighboring Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Estimates of its strength vary widely, but a rough figure is probably 15-20,000 throughout Central Asia. Its influence should not be exaggerated – it has little public support in a region where there is limited appetite for political Islam – but it has become by far the largest radical Islamist movement in the area (Unkown, Radical Islam in Central Asia: Responding to Hizb ut-Tahrir, 2003). The common misconceptions regarding Muslims did not begin with the terrorist attacks of 9/11, but that seems to be the current event that hits closest to home. Islamic terrorism is a movement in which the violence caused by terrorism is derived from and used to preserve extreme interpretations of the Quran in an Islamic community. Participants of this movement call for an unquestioned devotion and blind obedience or a Quaranic tenet has been broken. A few of the Islamic terrorist groups are Al-jihad, AlQaeda (Afganistan), Hamas (Palestine), Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (Kashmir), and the Lashkar e-Toiba (Kashmir) (Venkatraman, 2007). The 9/11 terrorist attacks were performed by AlQaeda under the direction of Osama bin Laden, the founder of AlQaeda. The death of Osama bin Laden has also certainly not stopped Islamic violence, but according to the president of the Muslim Public Affairs Counsel, Salam Al-Marayati, the death of Osama bin Laden â€Å"represents the beginning of the end of a dark era in U. S. -Muslim relations. † He goes on to say that â€Å"hopefully this ushers a new era of hope and democracy in dealing with the grievances of Muslim people throughout the world without resorting to political violence. † (Lozano, 2011). The media and these current world events are a definite misconception of all Muslim people. To gratuitously insult law-abiding Muslims by conflating them with terrorists is not only wrong, it is dangerous to U. S. national security (Stern, 2011). An article written in the New York Times in October of 2010, spoke about local New York Islamics having open houses to invite non-Muslims in to attend prayers, discussions and tours of Islamic centers as a way to defuse hostility toward the Muslim population. The idea for the program, â€Å"A Week of Dialogue,† emerged from a summit of Islamic leaders as a response to the furor surrounding a plan to open a Muslim community center and mosque near ground zero (Semple, 2010). Muslims in America and around the world are trying to bring back the truth to the original Islamic meaning of peace. We now must look at how Muslims and non-Muslims communicate and live together in harmony. Historically, in countries where Islam has gained political power, people of all rival religions are either wiped out, or in the interest of â€Å"tolerance† or â€Å"open mindedness†, permitted to exist as second-class citizens. Christians and Jews are looked down upon and may not practice their religion openly or freely without serious consequence. But, Islam in the West is completely different from Islam in Muslim dominated countries. Muslims who live in the Western democratic countries enjoy all the benefits and privileges of freedom and democracy. They have secure civil liberties and may practice their religion freely and openly. The Qur’an specifically states that Islam is a religion of mercy, tolerance and moderation. Moderation being the key to Muslim and non-Muslim communication. It allows Muslims to have a good relationship with non-Muslims, but to a certain limit. One quote from the Qur’an says this: â€Å"Let not the believers (Muslims) take for friends Unbelievers (non-Muslims) rather than believers. And whoever does that has no relation with Allah whatsoever, except by way of precaution that you may guard yourselves from them. † (Surah Ali Imran, V: 28). Conclusion In summation, some of the misconceptions that people around the world have regarding Islam, are backed up by some current and past events. We must first begin to understand the Islamic faith, it’s diversity in people, areas of the world and political stances. This author does not begin to understand the depth of the Islam faith. After researching for this essay, the realization of the diversity of this faith as compared to Christianity or Judaism, is overwhelming. The peaceful people of Islam must not be judged by the terrorists and the acts they commit. We learned that Islam has political side and a religious side as well. The editor of the journal, American Libraries, Leonard Kniffel wrote an editorial about how libraries jumped at the chance to begin educating communities on the Islam faith shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Mr. Kniffel states that, â€Å"Knowing that an anti-Muslim backlash was inevitable, they created programs to help the patrons of their libraries understand the teachings of Islam, the history of American policy related to the conflict we now find ourselves in, and what it means to be Muslim in America† (Kniffel, 2002). The Muslim American Society (www. muslimamericansociety. org) has a campaign called â€Å"The Straight Path Initiative†. It’s goals are to equip and focus on Muslims in America ages 15-30. This initiative has a goal to initiate an honest open ialog about radicalization and extremism in Muslim American communities. They are targeting high schools and college campuses to provide programs and activities to involve young Muslim Americans in a proactive way that limits opportunities for radicalization (Unkown, The Straight Path Initiative, 2011). Much like any religion or people group, Islam has a group of terrorists and non-peaceful people amongst them . The misconceptions are actually very real and have information and current events to back them up. It would also be fair to say, that most religions and people groups have those kinds of people. Understanding one another is the most important thing we can do. By educating each other on beliefs, understandings and ways of life, we can only then begin to have peaceful dialog to bring us together. September 11, 2001 became a day for American’s to see the true colors of the terrorist sect of the Islam religion. As this is a day we will never forget, we must begin to heal by understanding and not judging the entire Islam faith for these terrible acts of terrorism. References Abdulsalam, M. (2006, January 30). The Religion of Islam. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from www. islamreligion. com: http://www. islamreligion. com/articles/6/. Grupper, J. , Prentice, P. , Roughton, R. (2000). Islam: Empire of Faith. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from www. pbs. org: http://www. pbs. org/empires/islam/film. html. Kniffel, L. (2002, January). Getting to know Islam. American Libraries , 48. Langley, M. (1993). World Religions. Oxford: Lion Publishing. Lozano, C. (2011, May 1). Osama bin Laden Dead: End of a dark era in U. S. Muslim relations’. Retrieved June 15, 2011, from L. A. Times: http://latimesblogs. latimes. com/lanow/2011/05/osama-bin-laden-dead-end-dark-era-us- muslim-relations. html. Ridenour, F. (2001). So What’s the Difference? Ventura, CA: Regal Books. Sachedina, A. (2010, September). Religion, Order and Peace: A Muslim Perspective. Cross Currents , 332-338. Semple, K. (2010, October 22). At Mosques, Inviting Non-Muslims Inside to Ease Hos tility Toward Islam. Retrieved June 15, 2011, from New York Times: http://www. nytimes. com/2010/10/23/nyregion/23mosques. html? ef=reconstruction. Simmons, G. Z. (2008). From Muslims in America to American Muslims. Journal of Islamic Law and Culture , 10 (3), 254-280. Stern, J. (2011, May/June). Muslims in America. The National Interest (113), pp. 38-46. Unkown. (2007, September 16). Abrahamic Religion. Retrieved June 14, 2011, from New World Encyclopedia: http://www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Abrahamic_religions. References (continued) Unkown. (2003, June 30). Radical Islam in Central Asia: Responding to Hizb ut-Tahrir. Retrieved June 15, 2011, from International Crisis Group: ttp://www. crisisgroup. org/en/regions/asia/central-asia/058-radical-islam-in-central-asia- responding-to-hizb-ut-tahrir. aspx. Unkown. (2011). The Straight Path Initiative. Retrieved June 17, 2011, from Muslim American Society: http://muslimamericansociety. org/main/content/straight-path-initiative. v an der Krogt, C. (2010). Jihad without apologetics. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations , 21 (2), 127-142. Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious Basis for Islamic Terrorism: The Quran and it’s Interpretations. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism , 30 (3), 229-248. How to cite Understanding Islam, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Integrated Project Management for Quasar-

Question: Discuss about theIntegrated Project Management for Quasar Communication. Answer: Integrated Change Control: Change control is managing techniques for the all change made to the products or projects (Harrison Lock 2017). In the given case study of Quasar Communication INC. many problems are arise in many kind of project management study. The problems are mentioned bellow that to be changed: In the R D project management the main problem is the project manager is doing lots of work himself like he works with engineering, marketing, product management, quality assurance, accounting and finance (Heagney, 2016). Everyone from the group needed a detailed schedule for them from the project manager. The project managers miles stone is pushed left by the marketing as they want to launch it early and the manufacturing pushing to the right as they want to delay the launch taking more time. The project manager is not able to make two groups happy at the same time. After making a milestone the marketing cancel the launch as they said they had the inside news of the market situation and the products success prediction in the market. It is near to impossible for the project manager to work if he does not have all the information. In the small customer project management the problem arises is not that every project th comes with the same priority. It is difficult for the project manager to manage different priority projects, as the project manager feels that big projects carry all of the weight and for those small projects suffers. The big projects are developed by many people and project manager to manage the whole project. For the small task projects are taken care of by the line manager himself, and many times contradiction of decision happens as the line manager thought himself as the project manager and takes decision without the project managers concern (Marcelino-Sdaba et al., 2014). In the large customer project management the project are also managed by the marketing people along with the project manager and his team. As both controlling the same big project everyone wants to be the superior of another. The marketing always look down to the project management team as the project management team is working under them. Sometime if project manager is not satisfied with the work of the line manager then project manager sends a memo about the line managers performance. In many cases after the memo send to the line manager is becomes incorporative (Hornstein, 2015). This gets the project manager frustrated on his team. The company needs to keep their reputation in front of their customers. Many companies sacrifice the quality for the cost and the time but this company needs to take care of the quality of the project irrespective of the cost and time required. In the capital equipment project management the biggest complaint is the new priority scheduling package the project management team supposed to install. The computer program will set the priorities of the project based on the requirement study, feasibility study, and cost effectiveness. The project manager feels that if the project is of low priority then the project might not get sufficient resources needed (Lock, 2014). Justification to the Required Changes: For the RD project management, the person with whom the project manager is working is to be trained first about their job role and what they exactly need to do. The project manager should have the power to decide whether the project is going to be launch early or the needed time will be taken for the project to launch. Sometimes the projects gets terminates as the marketing people does not want the product to be launched as the product in not beneficial, in this case the hard work of the project manager goes in vain. This happens because of the lack of information of the project manager as the marketing does not reveal the information to the project manager. To solve this kind of problem the project manager must needed all the information about the project is it marketing or manufacturing (Kerzner Kerzner 2017). For small customer project management the small projects suffer mainly because of the big projects. The priorities of the small projects are relatively low as compared to the big projects. If different priority projects comes in a same time span to the project manager, then the project manager first need to make a schedule not as per the priority but on the bases how he can manage the project management for the project. Sometime in the company the line manager makes decisions without the concern of the project manager this need to be changed as the project manager only have the power to commit anything to the customer regarding the project. The project manager strictly needs to control the line manager to avoid any miscommunication between the project manager and the customer. For the third case that is large customer project management, the marketing and the project management works together in words. But the marketing tries to dominate and show the power to the project management team. This need to be changed if the marketing and the project management works together as one team this will increase the productivity. The company needs to focus on the quality of the product rather than compromising on the quality on focusing on the cost and time (Goetsch Davis 2014). If the company provide better product then the customer will be satisfied and more projects will offer to the company. Sometimes the professional needs to invest their own money because the reputation of the company is in stake so as their integrity. The main problem of the capital equipment project management is the computerized priority scheduling system. The system determines the priority of a project on several bases of feasibility study, time, cost effectiveness and many more. The project manager feels that the projects with low priority will get fewer resources rather than the big projects (Singh, 2014). This must be changed; every task must get the amount of resources what the projects needs. For this kind of problem the project manager always stays behind his schedule and the one to suffer the most. The project manager must always run on schedule for better performance and better productivity. References: Goetsch, D. L., Davis, S. B. (2014).Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Harrison, F., Lock, D. (2017).Advanced project management: a structured approach. Routledge. Heagney, J. (2016).Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity.International Journal of Project Management,33(2), 291-298. Kerzner, H., Kerzner, H. R. (2017).Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Lock, M. D. (2014).The essentials of project management. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Marcelino-Sdaba, S., Prez-Ezcurdia, A., Lazcano, A. M. E., Villanueva, P. (2014). Project risk management methodology for small firms.International journal of project management,32(2), 327-340. Singh, A. (2014). Resource constrained multi-project scheduling with priority rules analytic hierarchy process.Procedia engineering,69, 725-734.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Strategic Management Case Study about Movie Industry

Industry environment analysis Threat of new entrants.  AnalysisAdvertising We will write a custom case study sample on Strategic Management: Case Study about Movie Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Factors (affecting the threat of new entrants) Analysis Threat Rating of New Entrants   Economies of scale:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Large scale production is of essence for economies of scale.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the movie industry can still succeed if it operates in small scale basis  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Small scale producers can rely on the home watchers as opposed to theatre loving clients. High Proprietary product differences:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Products in the movies industry are poorly differentiated.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is nothing unique that is offered by different stakeholders.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The only differentiation that exists adopts the Hub and Spok e strategy where movie companies seek an identity in a specific line of production, but also venture into other forms of production. High Brand identity:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some brands have a dominating identity such as 20th Century, MGM, Waner Bros, Columbia pictures among others.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   New entrants may find it hard to compete with the established firms. However, if they have an interesting movie, then they can make major sales as the switching costs are low. Medium Buyer/customer switching costs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Inexistent switching costs.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no product attachment to customers in the movie industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Any possible switching cost may be associated with movie theatres for customers with loyalty tickets and may opt not to switch to another competitor.    High Capital requirements:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Massive movie production requires a high capital outlay.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Small entrants may not be able to compete with existing producers or theatre owners.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   New producers can easily utilize existing market, both the individual market and the theatre market.    High Absolute cost advantages:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Existing players, both producers and theatre owners have acquired comparative advantage due to the experience they already posses.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Most existing theatres are already strategically placed.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This disadvantages the new entrants. Low Government Policy:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The government has adopted a policy of market regulation.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This has made it easy for new entrants to join the movie industry. Medium Expected retaliation:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The movie industry has always adopted a counter offer strategy (O’Regan, 2010). When one producer produces a new movie that is unique, the others quickly produces their vers ions killing the competitive advantage of the initial innovator. A good example is the 2005 production of Hotel Rwanda by Lions Gate Entertainment and the subsequent release of Sometimes in April, based on the same story of Rwanda’s genocide by Home Box Office.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In keeping with this spirit, a major backlash for an innovation from a new entrant is expected. High Overall Rating: High-Medium Bargaining power of suppliers.  Analysis   Ã‚   Factors (affecting the bargaining power of suppliers) Analysis Rating of Supplier Power   Differentiation of inputs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no differentiation of inputs as what is supplied to movie theatres is the same.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Theatres should use different suppliers as opposed to sticking with one movie producers. Low Switching costs of suppliers and firms in the industry:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no switching costs associated with the change of the movie suppliers. à ‚ ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   All the benefits offered by one producer can be offered by another producer.    Low Presence of substitute inputs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no clear substitutes in the movie industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, rivalry among the suppliers denies them any considerable advantage due to the lack of substitutes.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, theatres enjoy as though there are substitutes. Medium Supplier concentration relative to industry concentration:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are fewer suppliers compared to the overall industry concentration.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The suppliers also have the theatre markets as well as individual markets.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes them to have a considerable say as far as supplying of products is concerned. Medium Importance of volume to suppliers:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The costs related with production makes suppliers to prefer large scale buyers.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although it is ea sy for suppliers to sell to individual customers, it is more cost effective to directly sell to theatres.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is more so when the product is new in the market. High Cost relative to total purchases in the industry:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Most purchases are capital incentive.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Purchases of patents, rights as well as initial payment made to actors are capita intensive.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes one purchase of a new movie into theatre screens a highly costly affair. Medium Information about supplier’s product:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Suppliers are good at supplying the sellers with the required information.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Due to their limited numbers, suppliers are known by the concerned buyers.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This gives the buyers power over the suppliers. Low Supplier profitability:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Suppliers such as Lions Gate Entertainment, Home Box Office among other s have maintained high rates of profitability.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the dying culture of movie theatres is slowly keeling the profitability levels in the industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The rise of internet marketing is compensating for this loss as suppliers can sell their products directly to global consumers (Chaffey, 2009). low Decision makers’ incentives     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Incentives are purely based on product quality as opposed to external incentives.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   External incentives are of no relevance to the industry. Low Threat of forward integration     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A possible integration of the current suppliers can spell doom to the buyers as they can force the already high market rates up.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This, coupled with declining theatre culture would reduce the profitability of the direct service sellers. Medium Overall Rating: Low-Medium Bargaining power of buyers.  Analysis Factors (affecting the bargaining power of buyers) Analysis Rating of Buyer Power Differentiation of outputs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The only available differentiators include; o   Price. o   Nature of the movie on the screens. o   Possible accompaniments.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, there is natural attachment of theatres and customers.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This acts to ensure that the theatres maintain their clientele. Switching costs of buyers:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no significant switching costs for buyers.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Even where there is loyalty rewards associated with tickets, competitors can still come with better deals.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes the bargaining power of buyers very high. High Presence of substitute outputs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no true substitutes offered to buyers.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the existence of similar products from other sellers makes the buyers to have a high bargaining power. à ‚ ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Products offered by competitors can act as substitutes. High Industry concentration relative to buyer concentration:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The concentration of sellers is relative.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes the competition among the sellers not to be too intense.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Buyers have medium power to decide on what they want. Medium Importance of volume to buyers:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Volume purchases are not very necessary in this industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Buyers have little effect to the prices offered by the sellers. Low Cost relative to total buyer purchases:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The prices are shaped by the relevance and newness of a film in the industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, costs are not associated with volumes, but the nature of the movie.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Therefore, buyers have an insignificant role in determining the prices. Low Buyer information about the industry output:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Individual buyers have a choice of either purchasing or renting the product they want.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Theatre buyers have to content with what the sellers have put forth.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The bargaining power of buyers is low. Low Buyer profitability:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The rising social strain among buyers affects their ability to buy.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This has led to reduced consumers of theatre services. Medium Decision makers’ incentives:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Theatres always offer incentives to attract clientele.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, common incentives are replicated by the competitors hence denying business a distinct comparative advantage. Low Threat of backward integration:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no threat for backward integration in the movie industry. Low Overall Rating: Low-Medium Power of substitutes.  Analysis Factors (affecting the power of substitutes) Analysis Threat   Ra ting of Substitutes Relative price/performance of substitutes:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no clear substitutes in the movie industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Only competing products can be seen as substitutes. Low Switching costs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are no switching costs associated with the perceived substitutes. Medium Buyer propensity to substitute:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Buyers can easily be swayed to perceived substitutes depending on the quality of products put forth. Low Overall Rating: Low Intensity of industry rivalry.  Analysis Factors (affecting the intensity of industry rivalry) Analysis Rating of Industry   Rivalry Industry growth rate:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The movie industry has reached the maturity stage.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is more experienced when the theatre culture is examined.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This spells uncertainties in the industry.    High High fixed costs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fixed costs in the movie industry is relatively high.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These especially true for producers as they must maintain a highly rewarded staff although on a contract basis.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Theatres must maintain high rents as they occupy huge areas in prime areas. Medium. Intermittent overcapacity:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This problem has never been experienced in the movie industry. Low Product differences:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is little product differentiation in the movie industry.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes it hard for one to strongly say that a specific service provider has an advantage over the other.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lack of product differences makes pricing an important factor in this industry. High Brand identity:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no player in the industry who can claim brand identity.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes identity of a service provider to be seasonal depending on the nature of the existing product.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Generational change further complicates the issue of brand identity as generation Y is known to have no brand royalty. High Switching costs:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no significant switching cost associated with this industry. High Informational complexity:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The industry is virtually affected by the volumes information that exists concerning the products.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The movie industry is highly debated even in the social sites.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This may help a service provider to bask in phenomenon fame which may translate to massive sales. High Concentration and balance:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The movie industry is not as concentrated as many other industries.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the few players in the business have intense competition among them. Medium Diversity of competitors:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is no significant diversity in this industry. The n ature of the products cannot allow for diversification of products. Medium Corporate stakes:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are little side activities that exists for the industry players.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This makes the industry players to remain in business regardless of fluctuating markets.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, rivalry is intense. High Exit barriers:     ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is little option left for most industry players.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus most of them must remain in the industry regardless of the changing market.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is hard to sell the investments already made to other industry players. High Overall Rating: High Summary of Industry environment analysis The concept of industry environment analysis has been used for several decades now to analyze various factors that are external to the business, but remain critical in the quest for crafting a comprehensive competitive strategy. In 1980, Michael Porter came up wi th a five force model that has remained instrumental in the analysis of the business environment. In this five force model, Porter established that there are various factors that need to be well catered for by any company that intends to craft a competitive strategy.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his quest to come up with a competitive force model, Porter managed to group the external environment into five major categories that he named as the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, threats posed by new entrants, the level of rivalry that exists among the existing firms and finally the threats posed by the substitute products (Porter, 2008). Conducting an environment analysis in the movie industry allows one to establish the extent of the existing opportunities as well as threats posed by external factors (Hill and Jones 2009). In the environ mental analysis of the movie industry, it is evident that the threats that are posed by the new entrants are relatively high though they have been rated as High-Medium. This indicates that the huge capital outlay that is required to venture into this business can discourage potential entrants form joining the business. However, this does not mean that it is impossible for new entrants to join the industry provided they can comfortably raise the required costs. It is also evident that the lack of switching costs on the part of the buyers acts to the disadvantage of sellers such that the sellers can easily lose their clientele if it decides to switch to a competitor. The buyers can do so with ease as they have nothing to lose form an engagement where they choose the services of a competitor. It is also evident that the general lack of clear substitutes in the movie industry makes the sellers to have an advantage especially due to the fact that they can easily retain the market share. However, the weakening power of buyers due to change in lifestyles as well as a changing economic factors have colluded to deny the movie industry valuable revenues that were initially associated with it. As far as substitute products are concerned, the lack of clear substitutes in the movie industry has ensured that the power of substitutes has an insignificant influence as far as the extent of strategy crafting is concerned. Movies do not have a direct substitute hence the overall rating of this category of external environment is low. When the intensity of industry rivalry is examined, it is evident that the movie industry is characterized by stiff competition among the main industry players. A shrinking market due to a change in the overall societal culture has led to intense competition especially to ensure that firms survive.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Strategic Management: Case Study about Movie Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, the bargaining power of suppliers in the movie industry is low, despite their limited numbers. This has been occasioned by the nature of rivalry among the players as well as lack of a clear differentiation of the products offered. Each supplier gets an opportunity to bask in glory when a specific product is fresh thus attracting thousands of viewers. However, due to the short product lifecycle associated with the industry, the suppliers have little bargaining power. Reference List Chaffey, D. 2009. Internet marketing: strategy, implementation and practice. New York: Prentice Hall. Hill, C. and Jones, G. 2009. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. Upper Saddle River: Cengage Learning. O’Regan, T. 2010. Local Hollywood: Global Film Production and the Gold Coast Ben. New York: UQP. Porter, M. 2008. On competition. New York: Harvard Business Press. This case study on Strategic Management: Case Study about Movie Industry was written and submitted by user Iker Klein to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Issues of Citizenship Education

The Issues of Citizenship Education In this assignment I have been given the task of selecting a contemporary educational issue and discussing the contrasting viewpoints on that particular issue. In regards to the task I have chosen to discuss about 'citizenship education' which has been a highly debatable topic in the recent era as well as in the past decades.So, what is citizenship? And what is the relationship between citizenship and education? Addressing the first question in light of Benn's (2000) research, it has been considered that citizenship is difficult to define and that it is country-dependant. However from a British perspective, she considers that citizenship is the "involvement in social networks, in the groups, organisations and voluntary associations that connect citizens with the life of their communities." Expanding on this Holden (1999) addresses the growing concern that the younger generation are leaving school without knowledge or interest of issues within their community and political issues as a whole.The frontispiece of the book Leviathan by Thomas H...The main reason for this appears to be an insufficient moral and social education, where there has been little teaching of 'political literacy'.In an educational context, as in answer to the second question, the subject of citizenship provides learning opportunities to gain knowledge, skills and understanding necessary to play an effective role in a society at local, national and international levels. Defining citizenship in education, Fogelman (1997) says "We define the subject (citizenship) in a broad way to concern the relationship between individuals and the world they live in. It relates not only to this country but to the European Community and the world as a whole. It concerns the institutions of democracy and the rights and responsibilities of individuals in a democratic society." Reehers and Cammarano (1997) beautifully synthesizing education and citizenship say 'first, we must remember that there is no division be tween...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The United Nations Role in World Wide Disasters Research Paper

The United Nations Role in World Wide Disasters - Research Paper Example The gradual technological improvements, though useful, have more than detached man from nature and doubled the vulnerability of the entire human population on the planet earth. The modern era disaster occurrences have only become more frequent and hazardous with partly irreparable consequences. The frequent reports by the United Nations showing a steady increase of disasters across the globe only serve to confirm the magnitude of suffering at hand (UN/ISDR, 2013a). Founded in 1945 after the catastrophic World War II as a replacement to the hitherto redundant League of Nations, The United Nations serves a fundamental purpose in ensuring that the humanitarian suffering caused by the natural as well as man-made disasters are not only prevented, but firmly brought under control when they occur. According to the UN reports, approximately 80 percent of the countries affected mostly by disasters are predominantly in the developing world (Alexander, 1991). Such areas rank low in terms of hum an development as indicative by their income per capita that ranges in the near survival levels. Disaster occurrences in such countries often leave behind a trail of high numbers of human casualties, sweeping away almost the entire property that suspends such livelihoods. The deadly tsunami that struck Asia in December 2004, for instance, left approximately 200,000 people dead, scores of hundreds missing and property worth millions of dollars in damages (UN/ISDR, 2006). Losses of such magnitude partly result from unsustainable development practices that do stand the tests of time (Mileti, et al., 1995). To be sure, proper land use planning is often non-existent. Even with the perennial environmental degradation that continues to bite hard into the daily livelihoods of the population, disaster preparedness is often relegated into the periphery (Aleskerov et al., 2005). Owing to the limited capacity to tackle major disasters, the United Nations roles out numerous initiatives and progr ams annually in a bid to ensure that efficient proactive planning approaches goes into helping those in vulnerable conditions. Disasters disrupt not only the livelihoods of those affected but also hinder national as well as international efforts in advancing development agendas aimed at eradicating poverty among the most vulnerable. The United Nations views disaster reduction strategies as an integral component of reducing world poverty and inculcating sustainable development practices. Through the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the United Nations works across the globe with ultimate goal of â€Å"enabling societies to become aware of the dangers posed by the possible natural hazards as well as those related technological advancements within their surroundings with the view of minimizing any possible human, economic and social damages† (UN/ISDR, 2013c). To meet this objective, the office of United Nations via numerous agencies under its operational management provides proactive financial support to international disaster risk reduction actors to facilitate early warning activities and mitigation measures as recommended by the Hyogo Framework (UN/ISDR,